National Law Review: To Promote Innovation, Congress Should Lessen Restrictions on Injunctive Relief for Patent Owners by Judge Paul Michel
Under the U.S. Constitution, a patent conveys an “exclusive right” to inventors so they can prevent others from stealing their inventions. And since the enactment of the Patent Act of 1790, the law has deemed patents to be a form of personal property and specifically provided for injunctive relief, a court order stopping a proven infringer from continuing to use or sell someone else’s invention. Yet, today in the United States, despite this constitutional mandate and grounding in law, many patent holders no longer have exclusive rights to their inventions, nor the ability to obtain iinjunctions.
For much of our country’s history, permanent injunctions were the norm once patent infringement and validity were proven at trial by the patent owner. And getting an injunction depended on facts, not the patent owner’s business model – for example, whether they manufactured or licensed their invention. The practice was stable for all of that time – until recently.
In 2006, in the Supreme Court’s eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C. decision, the Court upended this settled practice, ruling that injunctions should not be automatically issued in patent cases and clarifying that courts must apply a four-part test to determine whether an injunction should be granted. The opinion of the Court, authored by Justice Thomas, said little more than that the four factors should determine when an injunction is allowed. However, two concurring opinions expanded on the role of injunctions in patent cases – one, written by Chief Justice Roberts, defended the historic practice of allowing injunctions in most cases, while the other, by Justice Kennedy, pushed in the opposite direction, basing the injunction determination on who the patent owner was and how they used the patent.
For some years after, the pattern of injunction grants changed little. But eventually, it shifted greatly, as lower courts began to make injunction determinations based primarily on the patent owner’s identity. Those who manufacture products continued to get injunctions, while those who chose to license their patents instead, no longer did. This misapplication of the ruling by lower courts has become so widespread that it is now almost impossible for inventors who license their patents to obtain an injunction, even in the face of proven infringement.